Wednesday, May 27, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfacesÃ¢â¬ (2257). So the character of Lady Bracknell observes at the conclusion of Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Importance of Being Earnest. The play as a whole is one firmly preoccupied with the idea of surfaces and their importance in Victorian society, where it must have often seemed (especially to someone as flamboyant as Wilde) that appearance mattered more than anything else. Wilde uses this play to unveil some of the flaws of a superficial societyÃ¢â¬âby first exaggerating frivolityÃ¢â¬â¢s influence, then making it absurd, and lastly unfolding some of its logic to make it both more understandable and more reprehensible. In so doing he exposes the unnaturalness, even the danger, of a world where exteriors have completely replaced interiors and the surface is all that remainsÃ¢â¬âwhich is as much a menace today as it was during WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s own time. Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s inquisition of Jack, her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s su itor, in Act I serves as a telling prototype. Having already questioned Jack about his income, knowledge, and personal habits, Lady Bracknell now turns to Ã¢â¬Å"minor mattersÃ¢â¬ : his background (2232). Her first of many reproaches on this score is a fine example of the baseless social appraisal that Wilde critiques so cleverly throughout the play. When Jack informs Lady Bracknell that he has Ã¢â¬Å"lostÃ¢â¬ both of his parents, her reaction is not one of sympathy or even curiosity, but instead of consternation. Ã¢â¬Å"Both?Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"To lose one parent may be regarded as a misfortuneÃ¢â¬âto lose both looks like carelessnessÃ¢â¬ (2232). Lady Bracknell is unabashedly blaming Jack not for being a smoker, or having no politics, or knowing nothing, as her interrogation just prior to this passage has revealed, but for losing his parentsÃ¢â¬âa shortcoming that, unlike all the others, has arisen entirely by chance and through no fault of JackÃ¢â¬â¢s. It is significant that Lady Bracknell uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ to say that having no parents Ã¢â¬Å"looks like carelessnessÃ¢â¬ (in some editions the word is Ã¢â¬Å"seemsÃ¢â¬ ), because it brings the focus quite literally to the idea of superficial appearances. The Victorian tendency to judge a personÃ¢â¬â¢s worth by their lineage may have ostensibly been based on a vague idea of inner worth as hereditary, but Wilde here exposes this convention as one based on outer presentation alone. For as Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s command for Jack to produce some parentsÃ¢â¬âor rather, she implies, any parentslater shows, she is interested only in someone who looks worthwhile, based on arbitrary standards that can be satisfied while entirely overlooking a personÃ¢â¬â¢s real character. She wants Jack to be someone like her nephew AlgernonÃ¢â¬âwho, as she says later in the play, Ã¢â¬Å"has nothing, but he looks everything. What more can one desire?Ã¢â¬ (2258). If this much seems ridiculous, Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s next accusation is even more so. Ernest reveals that he is not only a foundling, but was found inside of a handbagÃ¢â¬âto which Lady Bracknell replies that Ã¢â¬Å"to be born, or at any rate, bred in a handbag, whether it had handles or not, seems to me to display a contempt for the ordinary decencies of family life that reminds one of the worst excesses of the French RevolutionÃ¢â¬ (2233). Obviously her blaming Jack for being Ã¢â¬Å"bredÃ¢â¬ in a handbag is completely ridiculous, in some ways even more than her disdain for his having lost his parents. For while before we initially knew only that Jack had lost contact with his parents, at whatever age and for whatever reason, here we know immediately that in this instance of alleged culpability, Jack was actually an infant. Perhaps the only way to make Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s annoyance more absurd at this point is to direct it towards a newborn childÃ¢â¬âone who is blamed for, of all things, being placed in a handbag. The faintly-traceable syllogism of her logic is still present here, in the sense that there is some rhetorical connection at least between an Ã¢â¬Å"ordinary handbag,Ã¢â¬ as Jack calls it, and the ordinary people behind such upheavals as the French Revolution (2233). And the sheer bizarreness of being found in a handbag is in some ways in opposition to Ã¢â¬Å"the ordinary decencies of family lifeÃ¢â¬ (2233). It is interesting that we see this word Ã¢â¬Å"ordinaryÃ¢â¬ come up again, here in a positive context as opposed to the negative one used just before. [Ã¢â¬Å"In what locality did this Mr. James, or Thomas, Cardew come across this ordinary handbag?Ã¢â¬ asks Lady Bracknell just before (2233).] Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s hypocritical refashioning of the word is just one of many subtle hints Wilde sends to the reader about the consistency, or rather inconsistency, of her logic. Yet Wilde is not so simplistic as to s uggest that she has no logic at all, which is one of the reasons this passageÃ¢â¬âand the play as a wholeÃ¢â¬âis so compelling. Lady Bracknell is extremely logical in some of the details she dismisses in this caseÃ¢â¬âsuch as the line of the cloak room in which the bag was found or whether or not the bag had handles. The language she uses to brush off such absurdly random details is often uncommon in its directness; Ã¢â¬Å"The line is immaterial,Ã¢â¬ for instance, is just about as simple and as short as her usually orotund sentences get (2233). In this way Wilde is able to present these moments as instances of plain, direct common senseÃ¢â¬âwhich is probably how Lady Bracknell looks at them herself. This makes them all the more confounding and hilarious for the pure improbability of these phrasesÃ¢â¬â¢ actual content. Nothing could be less relevant to JackÃ¢â¬â¢s character than the line of the handbagÃ¢â¬â¢s cloakroom, or the presence or absence of handles; points like these are in fact so wide of the mark that no coherent person would ever bother to point out how trivial they are. The fact that Lady Bracknell admits that these things donÃ¢â¬â¢t matter, but others that are equally inane somehow do [i.e. the fact that Jack was found in a handbag, or the fact that the handbag was in a cloak room that Ã¢â¬Å"might serve to conceal a social indiscretionÃ¢â¬ (2233)] cause her to appear simultaneously more and less ridiculous, an impressive feat. On the one hand it is encouraging to see that she has some sound judgment at least, but on the other it is disturbing to find that an apparently rational person can follow this judgment to such a misdirected conclusion. Lady BracknellÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"seemsÃ¢â¬ to describe her impressions [Ã¢â¬Å"seems to me to display a contemptÃ¢â¬ (2233)] like her previous choice of the word Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ , ultimately ties this deconstruction of logic back in with the idea of surface and appearances. The reasoning Lady Bracknell uses here is completely arbitrary; there is no earthly reason why the fact of a handbag should be any more or less important than whether or not it has handles. By highlighting the ridiculousness of such gradations, Wilde suggests that any focus on mere appearance alone is in fact equally arbitraryÃ¢â¬âthat a person shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be blamed for their family any more than an infant should be blamed for a handbag, and exteriors are only significant if they are clearly distinguished from interiors. In exactly this spirit, The Importance of Being Earnest strives not to create a realistic representation of an outer reality, but an artistic summation of an inner one. In the context of aestheticism Wilde compiles the most ridiculous parts of human nature and places them on stageso that even today when his spectators laugh, they do so with the dim sentience that in a play seemingly all about surfaces, heÃ¢â¬â¢s deriding th e innermost part of themselves.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Final Essay Regarding Primate Evolution into Humans Brett Ford Cerro Coso Community College Abstract Tool use, or more accurately tool making, is of key importance to primate evolution. Not only is this aspect of primate and human evolution significant, but it directly influenced primate and human growth in cognition as well as physical attributes. This importance cannot be undersold, as much of human evolution, occurred as a result of social behaviors such as tool making, and the ability to replicate an action. Tool making in primates shows an increase in both physical growth and mental capacity, and those attributes led this activity to become socially important in early human societies. Social behavior is a key aspect of human and primate growth. The ability to bond socially, for protection as well as growth, is a key factor in the successive evolution that occurred between primates, and early humans. One of these social behaviors is tool making. Tool making and use is very significant to primate evolution, as it displays not only a significant growth in cognition, but certain physical evolutionary attributes that can be seen to the present day. Tool making in primates shows an increase in both physical growth and mental capacity, and those attributes led this activity to become socially important in early human societies. Before one can see how significant tool making and other behavior is, a understanding of the physical capabilities ofShow MoreRelatedHuman Primates And Primate Behavior1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestypes of primates, from non-human to human primates, to even developing a better understanding of the evolution of primates and primate behavior. For my f inal paper, I will be going over and portraying the behavior of non-human primate and human primate. I will be comparing the primates behavior seen over the movies and literatures that we were assigned, to the understandings of evolution. Being able to learn and compare the behavior of non-human primate and the behavior of human primate, it canRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography : Apes Show Concern For One Another Very Much Like Humans852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnnotated Bibliography: Primates Dixon, Hayley. Apes Cuddle Each Other When Upset like Humans. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 15 Oct. 2013. Web. 17 Mar. 2016. . Apes show concern for one another very much like humans do. Researchers in the article written by Dixon explain this affectionate trait is prevalent in young Bonobos. Monkey kiss, hug and embrace each other for comfort very much like humans do. Monkeys who scream frequently and are not quieted by these emotional exchanges showRead MoreThe Evolution Of Human Speech1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Evolution of Human Speech As human we can communicate via our speaking ability to express our feelings, as a way to deliver the message we want another. These articles that I read discuss the anatomical prerequisite for humans to gain the ability to speak such as the absent and present of the air sac in hominids. Morphological changes of the face structure such as the reduced growth of the palate and the descent of the larynx. The controversial hypotheses of the hypoglossal canal size are indicativeRead MoreNeanderthal Brain Size At Birth1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBrain Size at Birth Provides Insights into the Evolution of Human Life Historyquot; by Marcia S. Ponce de Leon discussed human life history is characterized by an extended period of developmental immaturity. This pattern of ontogeny is thought to be necessary for higher cognitive capabilities (Ponce de Leon 37). However, recent studies suggest the differences between the human brain growth and the chimpanzees are less evident (Ponce de Leon 37). Hum ans reach their large adult brains by means of higherRead MoreThe Evolution Of Human Speech : Anatomical Aspect1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Evolution of Human Speech: Anatomical Aspect As human we can communicate via our speaking ability to express our feelings, as a way to deliver the message we want to others. These articles that I read discuss the anatomical prerequisite for humans to gain the ability to speak such as the absent and present of the air sac in hominids. Morphological changes of the face structure such as the descent of the larynx. The controversial hypothesis of the hypoglossal canal sizes is indicative of speechRead MoreThe Evolution Of Human Evolution1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman evolution according to research started over 6 million years ago. The outcome of the evolution process is the current human beings. Scientific studies have revealed over the years a remarkable affinity between the chimpanzees/Apes and human beings. Even though this reality is not a definitive prove that human beings evolved from apes, it does show that the human beings are in one way or another related to other primates. Scientists suppose that the humans and the p rimates shared a commonRead MoreNeil Shubin s Your Inner Fish Essay1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstyle that is enabled by an obvious adoration of the subject, Neil Shubin explores the predecessors of the human species in his book Your Inner Fish. Shubin draws upon his unique background as a paleontologist, embryologist, and geneticist to trace defining phenotypical traits that are inherent to humans to even the simplest of organisms. He delves into the difficult details of evolution that have long remained mysteries until recent years, specifically analyzing the transition from water to landRead MoreThe Importance Of Phylogenetics832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe eight primates, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s molecular phylogenetics were studied, are: modern human, Neanderthal, chimpanzee, gorilla, Sumatran orangutan, Bornean orangutan, bonobo, and gibbon (the outgroup). Using the BLAST tool provided from NCBI, the genomes from each of the species was sequenced using two different molecular markers: mitoc hondrial 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Each of the following steps were conducted for both the mitochondrial 16s rRNA and mtDNARead MoreThe Big History Of Modern Rifles1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Big History of Modern Rifles An aspect of human development that perhaps few have investigated, but is arguable what makes humans very special is their ability to kill at a distance through the use of highly sophisticated modern weaponry. The M-1 Garand rifle was used on a massive scale by United States troops both in the European and Pacific theatres of war during World War II. What makes this rifle special is that it was the first of its kind adopted by any nation or country. The M-1 GarandRead MoreDifferences Between Pitheciidae And The Remaining Platyrrhines1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessupport and topology tests. (Wildman et al., 2009, p. 694). This study also found that Aaotus formed a sister taxon to a clade that included Cebus and Saimiri. Using this fully resolved platyrrhine phylogeny, the study tests hypotheses regarding the evolution and diversification of platyrrhine phenotypes. Wildman et al. (2009) also took a different approach in solving two major issues that have not yet been resolved. First, the branching order of the three families that still remains highly controversial
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A Trending Lifestyle: Cohabitation Due to the shifts in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles, marriage has become less central in society. The traditional precept that a couple should legalize their relationship through marriage before living together has declined these days due to the transformation of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and thoughts towards the act of marriage. As a result, couples who are not inclined towards marriage have turned to alternate courses in their relationship. One of the most common living styles most young people have chosen is the live-in relationship or cohabitation. It raises the question of whether this lifestyle choice is more beneficial to cohabiters rather than marriage. Although it is a trending lifestyle, the issue is still a social controversy nowadays. Although marriage has been a central factor and gives meaning to human lives, the change in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles and behaviors through a long period of social development has resulted in alternate choices such as being single or nonmarital living. As a result, cohabitation has become more popular as a trendy life choice for young people. The majority of couples choose cohabitation as a precursor to marriage to gain a better understanding of each other. However, there are exceptions, such as where Thornton, Azinn, and Xie have noted: Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, the couple may simply slide or drift from single into the sharing of living quarters with little explicit discussion or decision-making. This sliding into cohabitation without
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: You are Required to use the Reflective Practice Cycle, to Provide a One Page Reflection of Your Clinical Placement Activity. Answer: Placement Description I was placed at ECH which is a leading non-profit provider of service which promotes self-determination as well as enabling people to have the best feasible life as they age. My place is now ready to deliver an extended arrange of innovative products as well as services to the market by seeking to join its ECH family frequently. The place activities are hinged on its key values of integrity, respect and empathy; with a healthier dose of courage, inspiration and preparedness to take risks that are thrown in. Knowledge before Placement Before commencing my clinical placement, I was endowed with interpersonal skills of communication. I was fluent in English language and how knew to arrange my messages in a manner that is according to the needs of my clients. Communication Observed I observed various communication down the chain of communication. I remember observing the non-verbal cues including facial expression and body movement being of great importance when my colleague was communicating with another colleague in the wellness department. Difference Observed I was not used to the use of non-verbal cues in the field placement. I initially preferred verbal communication. Thus when I observed such a great attention accorded to non-verbal cues, I was greatly challenged. Lessons Learned I learned a lot from the communication I observed. I have henceforth learnt to appreciate the significance of non-verbal cues in my field of practice. I have realized that by paying keen attention non-verbal cues of communication, I can understand the needs of my client more effectively. Improving Communication Skills My communication skills could increasingly improve by integrating the non-verbal skills into the verbal skills so that I can gain from both when communicating with my clients and even colleagues. I will thus take it as a challenge upon myself to learn more of the use of non-verbal cues in communication. Resources/Strategies The resources I will use to improve my communications skills is through the consultation with my colleagues who have mastered these cues. Besides this, I will read a lot of books and articles on non-verbal cues in communication to help me be perfect and competent enough.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Abstract The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteoritesAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Is there evidence of life on Martian meteorites? According to Buseck et al, Nanocrystals of Magnetite(Fe3O4) compounds in meteorites found from mars are the strongest, yet the most controversial indicators that there is extraterrestrial life in Mars(13490). The allegation attached to the Fe3O4 is that they resemble crystals found in Meteorite ALH84001, which are formed by specific terrestrial bacteria. The ALH84001 was found in the Antarctica and later recognized as meteorite whose origin was Mars(Mckay et al 924). McKay Et al authored startling report based on chemical and structural features of ALH84001 (295).The report indicates that there was indeed life in mars. McKay Et al based their arguments on four chemical and structural features of the meteorite and although they admitted that the individual features could not prove their allegation, they sought to convince the general public as well as scientists that the four features taken collectively were evidence enough that there was indeed life in Mars(Friedmann et al 562). The first basis for their conclusion was the Ã¢â¬Å"igneous Mars RockÃ¢â¬ . According to their report, the rock was of unidentified geologic context and had pores and fractured spaces that were permeated by a fluid. Their second reason was t hat the igneous rock was older than the carbon globules found there in. The third reason was that the TEM and SEM images captured of the carbon globules had features that resemble microfossils, terrestrial-biogenic-carbonate structures, and terrestrial micro organisms. Fourth, the Fe-sulfide and magnetite particles indicated that the oxidation and other reductions reaction had occurred on the compound, thus indicating the presence of microbial systems and finally, there were Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs)on the compound thus indicating that its original surface(Mars)had carbonate globules(McKay et al 930). Buseck et al, notes that although the McKay et al theory has been criticized and largely questioned, no one scientist or researcher has been able to disapprove it(13490).The report starts by acknowledging the fact that the 1975 Viking lander experiments managed to negate the possibility that there was life on Mars. However, the report states that the conclusion from the te sts cannot be meant to conclude that there was absolutely no life in Mars. This was especially because the Viking experiments were too localized to offer a conclusive report regarding life or lack of it in Mars(McKay et al 924).Advertising Looking for essay on astronomy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The deduction by McKay Et al that meteorite ALH84001 has enough evidence regarding life in Mars has been criticized by many scientists with Thomas-Keprta et al(2164) saying that the evidence offered was based on Ã¢â¬Å"presumptive bio-signaturesÃ¢â¬ . In their own research, Thomas-Keprta et al classified Fe3O4 crystals and identified them to be similar to the intracellular magnetite released by MV-1(a magnetotactic bacteria-strain). In the research, Thomas Keprta et al states that the magnetite populations are chemically pure and from a single-domain(2164). They also observe a Ã¢â¬Å"uniqueÃ¢â¬ crystal habit, which they def ine as truncated hexaoctahedral(2164). They argue that since there are no known reports which could explain the truncated hexaoctahedral observations, the presence of the MV-1 strain of bacteria was most likely as a result of Natural selection rather than organic activity. They however argue that the only possibility where the magnetite crystals could be used to indicate that there is life in Mars, is if there are Ã¢â¬Å"unexplained inorganic processes on Mars that are absent on Earth and hence forms the truncated hexa-octahedral magnetiteÃ¢â¬ (2165). Overall, Thomas-Keprta et al manages to support rather disapprove the McKay et al deduction that the ALH84001 is an indicator that there is life in Mars. Their argument does not however go unchallenged. Buseck at al, states that the Ã¢â¬Å"Truncated hexa-octahedralÃ¢â¬ crystals they refer to are not as unique as they make people to believe (13494).Buseck et al argues that the term means that the crystals of ALH84001 have a combin ation of octahedron, dodecahedron and cube faces. These according to them had been observed in other meteorites and hence were not a unique aspect at all. Buseck et al(13490) criticizes both studies done by Mckay Et al(929)and Thomas-Keprta et al(2165) saying that the two arguments are flawed. He claims that without the micro structural or chemical evidence to back the allegation that the features in the ALH84001 are indeed magnetite crystals, then any evidence produced thereafter is inadmissible. He further argues that magnototactic bacteria are ever-present on the Earth, despite the fact that intact chains of the nano-sized magnetite crystals from such bacteria are hard to find in earthly geological samples. As such the intact chains as found by McKay et al(925)would be hard to find because it would be unlikely that they would survive biological processes. Friedman et al acknowledges that it is quite difficult to understand how the magnetite chains hypothesized by McKay et al surv ived in their intact form(2176).This only serves to cast further doubt on the allegation of McKay et al and subsequent research conducted and documented by other authors like Friedman et al and Thomas-Keprta Et al(2164-2169).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Golden et al neither refute nor support the allegation by McKay et al(370-375).They however proved that just as much as the formation of carbonates, sulfides and magnetite on ALH84001 could be attained in temperatures that support life, the same can be formed inorganically. Golden et al through a combination of precipitation and heating processes developed simple inorganic process, which they claim can offer an alternative explanation to the carbonate, Fe-sulfide and magnetite found in the meteorite ALH84001(370). The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteorites. Discussion By2007, there were 12 meteorites that had been studied or still were being studied for ingredients that would suggest life on Mars. The meteorites were thought to have originated from Mars due to their unique(often peculiar) chemistry (Kimball 1). Of all the 12, the ALH84001 has been the single most meteorites subjected to extensive study. The three most cited ingredients in the ALH84001 that suggest that there could be indeed life processes in Mars are the presence of PAHs. However, scientists note that PAHs are not unique to met eorites from Mars only. According to Kimball, meteorites from other places in the solar systems are known to have PAHs too even though it has been established that there are no traces of life there(1). The mineral within the meteorite(magnetite, carbon and Fe-sulfide)is the other indicator that some scientists use to suggest the presence of life activities in Mars. However, as seen above, some researchers have proven that it is quite possible to generate the minerals without biological processes. The time that the minerals were deposited in the meteorite is also suspect because as Kimball(1)indicates, the minerals seems to have been deposited in the specific rock later in its history, which raises the question, is it possible that the rock picked the minerals on earth rather from its origin? Stephan et al notes that the rock had fusion crusts, and mineralogical and well as chemical differences(113). These differences could have led to the contamination of the inner rock through the cracks, which could have happened during handling or in the Antarctic environment before the rock was discovered.Advertising Looking for essay on astronomy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An answer to this question is provided by Stephan et al, who after a study concluded that it was highly unlikely that the PAHs in the ALH84001 had an extraterrestrial origin(113). The study further provided evidence that the meteorite was contaminated by lead, which is evidently a terrestrial material. Studies by Golden et al also allude that ALH84001 continues to be contaminated with terrestrial microbial materials hence suggesting that Ã¢â¬ËmaybeÃ¢â¬â¢ the PAHs had been picked in its Antarctica location (374). The third reason that some researchers like McKay et al (924) and Thomas-Keprta et al(2164)suggests indicates some signs of life are the objects that resemble fossils in tiny micro-organisms when observed under a microscope. This argument is however discredited by Kimball, who argues that the fact that the largest of the Ã¢â¬Å"nano-fossilsÃ¢â¬ got from the rock had a diameter of 100 nanometers, is evidence enough that it does not have the necessary volume to support life(1).The Smallest microorganism on earth is the Mycloplasmas and has 300 nanometer diameter. Scientists indicate that a micro-organism would need at least a 200 nanometer diameter in order to support life (Kimball 1). In addition to the ALH 84001 meteorite, other meteorites of Martian origin include Ã¢â¬Å"Shergotty, Nkakhla and ChassignyÃ¢â¬ . Nakhla was the first meteorite of Martian origin to be found on earth(Glavin et al 8835), and just like the LAH84001, the meteorite contained carbonates and some hydrous minerals. Research on Nakhla indicated that the rock had been exposed to some aqueous solutions after its formation, and this was the first indication that researchers need to conclude that in deed there were aqueous processes on Mars. The length of time that such processes persisted however remains a pertinent question to this day. As opposed to ALH84001 meteorite which had an estimated terrestrial age of almost 13,000 years, the Nakhla meteorite fell on 9 am 40 kilomet ers to the East of Alexandria in Egypt in 1911. The fall was observed and most of the specimen rocks were collected within days of the fall (Glavin 8834). On observation, Nakhla was found to contain d-amino acids, which were not present in the ALH84001 meteorite. According to Glavin et al, the d-amino acids were not extraterrestrial in nature and had been deposited into the rock when it hit the ground in the Nile region (8836). This conclusion was reached because in addition to finding similar d-amino- acids around the Nile soil, the amino acids would have been racemic if they were formed on Mars(Glavin 8836). The D/L ratios, which could have determined the amino-acids of Martian origin in the rock, were not possible due to the low concentration of the same. Another meteorite EETA79001 was found to contain l-enantiomers components of amino-acids (Mcdonald Bada 1179).Such are common in proteins and thus indicated that this rock too had been exposed to terrestrial contaminants, speci fically from the Antarctic ice where the meteorite had been collected. Is (was) there life in Mars? According to Glavin Bada, life in Mars just like on earth would be possible in the presence of water and Ã¢â¬Å"a continuous supply of pre-biotic organic compoundsÃ¢â¬ (1022). The exogenous delivery of meteorites on earth from Mars has given researchers and scientists the chance to determine if indeed there was or there is life in Mar. Unfortunately this is not always possible due to the exposure of the meteorites to different substances as they fall to earth and on impact with the earth. Other attempts to identify whether there is life in Mars collectively known as the Viking Studies involved the placement of television cameras on Mars surface to detect any presence of life. This turned no results. Gas chromatograph and Mass spectrometer were also used for purposes of checking the Martian soil for organic molecules. This too showed negative results. The labeled-release equipment w as set up to check for catabolic activities by microorganisms that could be present in the Martian soil. Again, the result for this was negative. The Pyrolytic-release experiments turned negative too and had been set to capture any anabolism evidence that could be generated by microorganisms that would be in the Martian soil. Finally, a gaseous exchange experiment was conducted on Mars but showed no biological evidence in gaseous formation. The Viking studies showed that there were no signs of life in Mars(at least not as we know it one earth). However, the meteorite evidence could be a possible answer to the question that has been nagging scientists for decades now. Conclusion Although there is a possibility that there is evidence contained in the Martian Meteorites that life was or still is in Mars, researchers face enormous challenges in proofing the same. The single most challenge lies in avoiding the exposure of Martian meteorites to terrestrial environments. Right from Nakhla to ALH84001,it is evident that terrestrial environment is able to affect the rocks thus making it even harder to determine if the observations made on such are endogenous or simply as a result of the contamination from terrestrial environments. Evidently, whether there is life on Mars or not is a subject that needs more research. Unfortunately, studies by (Buseck et al 13492; Golden et al 375)indicates that meteorites like ALH84001, Nakhla and EETA79001 show different components between different researches thus indicating that their exposure to the terrestrial environment is making them less valuable for research as the days go by. As indicated in my thesis statement, researchers should concentrate on deciphering any evidence to either side, which can be deducted from the available meteorites. Works Cited Buseck, peter, Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal, Devouard, Bertrand, Frankell, Richard, McCartney, Martha Midgley, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Magnetite Morphology and Life on Mars.Ã¢â¬ The Natural Ac ademy on Sciences.98.24 (2001):13490-13495 Friedmann, Imre, Wlerzchos, Jacek, Ascaso, Carmen Winklhofer, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Chains of Magnetite Crystals in the Meteorite LAH84001; Evidence of Biological Origin.Ã¢â¬ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Americ. 98.5 (2001):2178-2181. Glavin, David, Bada, Jeffrey, Britnton, Karen McDonald, Gene. Ã¢â¬Å"Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite NakhlaÃ¢â¬ Geochim Cosmochim Acta 96.16(1999):8835-8838. Glavin, David Bada, Jeffery. Ã¢â¬Å" Isolation of Purines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite using Sublimation.Ã¢â¬ Lunar and Planetary Science Xxxv (2004):1022-1023. Golden, David, Mind, Douglas, Schwandt, Craig, Lauer, Howard, Socki, Richard, Morris, Richard, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"A Simple Inorganic Process for Formation of Carbonates, Magnetite, and Sulfides in Martian Meteorite ALH84001.Ã¢â¬ American Mineralogist 86.1(2001):370-375. Kimball, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Is(was) there life on Mars?Ã¢â¬ Aug. 2007.10 March 2010. Web. McDonald Gene, Bada Jeffery. A Search for Endogenous Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite EETA79001.Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 59.6 (1995):1179-1184. McKay, David, Gibson, Everett, Thomas-Keprta, Kathie, Vali, Hojatollah, Romanek, Christopher, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Search for past Life on Mars: Possible relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH84001.Ã¢â¬ Science 273.5277(1996):924-930. Stephan, Thomas, Jessberger, Elmar, Heiss, Christian and Rost, Detlef. Ã¢â¬Å"TOF-SIMS Analysis Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Allan Hills 84001.Ã¢â¬ Meteoritics Planetary Science 38.1(2003):109-116. Thomas-Keprta, Kathie, Clemett, Simon, Bazylinski, Dennis, Kirschvinki, Joseph, McKay, David, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals in ALH84001: Presumptive Bio-SignaturesÃ¢â¬ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98.5(2001):2164-2169. This essay on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? was written and submitted by user Isabell Wilkinson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Advertising strategies of Pepsi-Cola Advertising strategies of Pepsi-ColaPepsi-Cola, produced in 1898, has had relatively successful history with the American society. According to an article titled "Coca-Cola," "Coke lost market share to competitor Pepsi-Cola, produced by PepsiCo, which for the first time topped Coca-Cola in sales" (par. 3). In 1954 an array of advertisements came about beginning with the slogan "The Light Refreshment" which later on incorporated "Refreshing Without Filling". After viewing an array of advertisements from this time period, it is clear that these slogans intended to appeal to upper class, wealthy individuals and women who were concerned with their weight. According to a web article entitled "The Evolution of Pepsi: From Sophistication to Sexiness," "At Pepsi's beginning, the marketers targeted the American woman's concern of enhancing her sophisticated and feminine appeal, reflecting America's idealized notion of beauty" (Reimer, Humble, Seldin). However, in 1984 Pepsi launched their new advertisement tactic "Pepsi.Seldin's, 419 Lafayette St., Utica, N. Y.The Choice of a New Generation" which greatly incorporated the use of sex appeal. Pepsi's main reasoning for this seems to have been that they believed that the society was transforming into a more sex driven place, therefore, incorporating sex would increase product sales. Pepsi's advertising has been geared toward the idea of wealth, weight loss, and the use of sex appeal in order successfully gross large sales for their product, however, they have done so by deceivingly making faulty promises that their product cannot keep.A specific advertisement with the "Light Refreshment" slogan from the year 1960 displays a male and female who appears to be very classy and wealthy. The male is sitting in front of the piano and the female is lustfully pointing her finger towards the male while holding a glass of Pepsi in her hand. One noticeable symbol in the advertisement is the...
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Information Technology Ethics - Term Paper Example Cyber crimes are here to stay. As Price stated, Ã¢â¬Å"As the number of computer owners connected to the internet increases, so too does the opportunity for cyber crimeÃ¢â¬ (Price, 2010). Chantler in his review of the book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Reality of the ThreatÃ¢â¬ by Nigel Phair (2007) cited PhairÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the different cyber crimes (Chantler, 2007). Phair noted (as cited by Chantler 2007) that cyber crimes can be broadly divided into seven groups namely: 1) unwanted software; 2) identity crime; 3) phishing; 4) critical infrastructure protection; 5) intellectual property; 6) communications; and 7) terrorism (Chantler, 2007). Hacking activities, spyware, adware, cookies, Trojans, spams and viruses fall under unwanted software. Unwanted software may be found either outside or within the organization. The second and third types of cyber crime, identity crime and phishing, deal with proof of identity, authentication of internet users and the tools used to get information . Chantler goes on further to cite PhairÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the other divisions of cyber crimes (2007). Critical infrastructure protection crimes are the crimes which involve the destruction of the information structures such as telecommunications and computer networks. On the other hand, crimes on intellectual property are concerned with software piracy. Cyber crime on communications is another form of cyber crime which gets much attention from organizations. These type of crimes include risks and threats on Ã¢â¬Å"wireless devices, VoIP (voice-over-internet protocol) - such as Skype and Google-talk, third generation phone systems, issues with caller ID, clipping, v-bombing, sim boxing, internet dumping, PABX hacking, phoneline scanning, voicemail, cloning, Bluetooth, RFIDÃ¢â¬ and issues on privacy (Chantler, 2007). Like any other group of society, terrorists have also resorted to digital technology in carrying out their activities. They use cyber space to commit crimes suc h as information warfare and distributed denial of service attacks (ddos) (Chantler, 2007). One of the most common crimes which Chantler failed to mention is cyber bullying. Over the years, there has been a proliferation of cyber bullying crimes worldwide. Cyber bullying is Ã¢â¬Å"bullying through email, instant messaging (IMing), chat room exchanges, Web site posts, or digital messages or images send to a cellular phone or personal digital assistant (PDA)Ã¢â¬ (Hazelden Foundation, n.d.). Cyber bullying involves online harassment which has become more severe through the years sometimes even the cause of some suicides among teenagers. Electronic Monitoring of Employees One of the offshoots of the advancement in information technology is the growth in the extent of workplace monitoring in several companies. Software such as Websense, SurfControl, SmartFilter and Xora have sprung up as corporations saw the need to monitor employees in the workplace. These software make it easy for m anagement to monitor the computer, internet or email use of the employees. A software like Xora can even go as far as monitoring an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts through GPS technology on their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile phones (Dell & Cullen, 2006). According to sellers of Web and email monitoring software, employee productivity, corporate liability and bandwidth limitations are the major reasons why workplace monitoring is implemented by corporations (Lemos, 2001). In a study by the American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute, it was revealed that 76% of employers